E-Beam Evaporation Deposition Technique
During an e-beam evaporation process, current is first passed through a tungsten filament which leads to joule heating and electron emission. High voltage is applied between the filament and the hearth to accelerate these liberated electrons towards the crucible containing the material to be deposited. A strong magnetic field focuses the electrons into a unified beam; upon arrival, the energy of this beam of electrons is transferred to the deposition material, causing it to evaporate (or sublimate) and deposit onto the substrate. Adding a partial pressure of reactive gas, such as oxygen or nitrogen to the chamber during evaporation can be used to reactively deposit non-metallic films.